Most projects have at least two independent sets of sources: the production code and the test code. For example, to tell Gradle that your project requires version 3.6.7 of Hibernate Core to compile and run your production code, and that you want to download the library from the Maven Central repository, you can use the following fragment: The Gradle terminology for the three elements is as follows: Repository (ex: mavenCentral()) — where to look for the modules you declare as dependencies, Configuration (ex: implementation) — a named collection of dependencies, grouped together for a specific goal such as compiling or running a module — a more flexible form of Maven scopes, Module coordinate (ex: org.hibernate:hibernate-core-3.6.7.Final) — the ID of the dependency, usually in the form '::' (or '::' in Maven terminology). Specifying the dependencies for your Java project requires just three pieces of information: Which dependency you need, such as a name and version, What it’s needed for, e.g. This chapter explains about how to build a java project using Gradle build file. The example in this section use the Java Library Plugin. We have only scratched the surface here, so we recommend that you read the dedicated dependency management chapters once you’re comfortable with the basics of building Java projects with Gradle. Either way, the Java Library Plugin adds a specific Copy task for each source set that handles the processing of its associated resources. You can see how these relate to one another in this diagram: The shaded boxes represent properties of the source set itself. it determines the version of byte code the compiler generates. This target directory will also be included in the runtime classpath of the tests. That means the dependency metadata published with the JAR file — usually in the form of a Maven POM —  is crucial. With the usage of Java toolchains, you can break that link by making sure a given Java version, defined by the build, is used for compilation, execution and documentation. Dependencies section is for providing information about external dependencies. However the described features are shared by all JVM plugins. To answer that question, consider whether the sources: Need to be compiled with a unique classpath, Generate classes that are handled differently from the main and test ones. Defines the minimum JVM version your code should run on, i.e. Sometimes it can be desirable to recreate archives in a byte for byte way on different machines. Configure a project to publish Javadoc and sources, Example 8. Most of the compiler options are accessible through the corresponding task, such as compileJava and compileTestJava. To start the build, type the following command on the command line. A Java platform represents a set of dependency declarations and constraints that form a cohesive unit to be applied on consuming projects. take a look into the following directory structre. Gradle itself provides Groovy and Scala plugins. To do this, you need to add Asciidoclet to Javadoc’s doclet path. You can learn more about this task and related topics in the Java testing chapter. You can change this default behavior by adjusting the classpath of the involved compile tasks as shown in the following example: By setting the compileGroovy classpath to be only sourceSets.main.compileClasspath, we effectively remove the previous dependency on compileJava that was declared by having the classpath also take into consideration, By adding sourceSets.main.groovy.classesDirectory to the compileJava classpath, we effectively declare a dependency on the compileGroovy task. Groovy, Gradle can only run on Java version 8 or higher. If the types from a dependency appear in public fields or methods of your library’s public classes, then that dependency is exposed via your library’s public API and should therefore be added to the api configuration. Read on to understand which plugins fits which project type, as it is recommended to pick a specific plugin instead of applying the Java Plugin directly. In particular, consumers of your library should be able to distinguish between two different types of dependencies: those that are only required to compile your library and those that are also required to compile the consumer. You get: An automatic test task of type Test, using the test source set, An HTML test report that includes the results from all Test tasks that run, Fine-grained control over how the tests are run, The opportunity to create your own test execution and test reporting tasks. Other common scenarios are less clear cut and may have better solutions. compilation or running. The Java Library Plugin has historically used the compile configuration for dependencies that are required to both compile and run a project’s production code. Scala and As far as configurations go, the main ones of interest are: compileOnly — for dependencies that are necessary to compile your production code but shouldn’t be part of the runtime classpath, implementation (supersedes compile) — used for compilation and runtime, runtimeOnly (supersedes runtime) — only used at runtime, not for compilation, testCompileOnly — same as compileOnly except it’s for the tests, testImplementation — test equivalent of implementation, testRuntimeOnly — test equivalent of runtimeOnly. You can learn more about the importance of this distinction in Building Java libraries. The main idea is that source files and resources are often logically grouped by type, such as application code, unit tests and integration tests. If a publishing plugin is used, these tasks will automatically run during publishing or can be called directly. Sometimes these files simply need to be packaged unchanged and sometimes they need to be processed as template files or in some other way. The version string is important for tracking the progression of the project. The Java Library Plugin adds a clean task to your project by virtue of applying the Base Plugin. For example, if you want to use a separate JVM process for the compiler and prevent compilation failures from failing the build, you can use this configuration: That’s also how you can change the verbosity of the compiler, disable debug output in the byte code and configure where the compiler can find annotation processors. If you follow this setup, the following build file is sufficient to compile, test, and bundle a Java project. This adds conventions and a task for building EAR files. If you don’t have much experience with building JVM-based projects with Gradle, take a look at the Java samples for step-by-step instructions on how to build various types of basic Java projects. The support comes via the Java Platform plugin, which sets up the different configurations and publication components. Use the following line in build.gradle file. Run gradle tasks again, and you see new tasks added to the list, including tasks for building the project, creating JavaDoc, and running tests. You do not get a Test task for every source set you declare, since not every source set represents tests! We will look at Java projects in detail in this chapter, but most of the topics apply to other supported JVM languages as well, such as Kotlin, Groovy and Scala. In essence, reproducible builds guarantee that you will see the same results from a build execution — including test results and production binaries — no matter when or on what system you run it. Here’s an example that does just that: You don’t have to create a configuration for this, but it’s an elegant way to handle dependencies that are required for a unique purpose. You can use one of the publishing plugins to publish the JARs created by a Java project: Each instance of the Jar, War and Ear tasks has a manifest property that allows you to customize the MANIFEST.MF file that goes into the corresponding archive. If the base manifest and the merged manifest both define values for the same key, the merged manifest wins by default. What if you don’t want to override the convention, but simply want to add an extra source directory, perhaps one that contains some third-party source code you want to keep separate? This is done by the war task, which effectively replaces the jar task — although that task remains — and is attached to the assemble lifecycle task. You can find a more comprehensive glossary of dependency management terms here. But it offers an init task to create the structure of a new Gradle project. Gradle now supports this release flag on CompileOptions directly for Java compilation. Applying the Java Library Plugin, Figure 1. The plugins automatically apply support for compiling Java code and can be further enhanced by combining them with the java-library plugin. The first two are specified in a dependencies {} block and the third in a repositories {} block. Be aware that the Java Library Plugin offers two additional configurations — api and compileOnlyApi — for dependencies that are required for compiling both the module and any modules that depend on it. If you want to create an 'uber' (AKA 'fat') JAR, then you can use a task definition like this: See Jar for more details on the configuration options available to you. Enabling Java feature preview, Example 16. The plugin’s chapter has more details. Libraries, applications, web applications and enterprise applications all have differing requirements. Each source set defines where its source code resides, along with the resources and the output directory for the class files. Speaking of writeTo(), you can use that to easily write a manifest to disk at any time, like so: The Java Library Plugin provides a javadoc task of type Javadoc, that will generate standard Javadocs for all your production code, i.e. Core Gradle, though, only directly supports traditional Servlet-based web applications deployed as WAR files. In that case, a custom source set may be just what you need. Java applications packaged as a JAR aren’t set up for easy launching from the command line or a desktop environment. These tasks are of type JavaCompile, so read the task reference for an up-to-date and comprehensive list of the options. Alongside providing automatic compilation of unit tests in src/test/java, the Java Library Plugin has native support for running tests that use JUnit 3, 4 & 5 (JUnit 5 support came in Gradle 4.6) and TestNG. The examples above only illustrated concepts provided by this base plugin and shared with all JVM plugins. src/main/java contains the Java source code. Example 1. Gradle’s Java support was the first to introduce a new concept for building source-based projects: source sets. Take a look at the following directory structure. The conventional directory structure won’t work, so you need to tell Gradle where to find the source files. This option takes precedence over the properties described below. You can see all the properties and methods available on source sets in the DSL reference for SourceSet and SourceDirectorySet. Without additional parameters, this task creates a Gradle project, which contains the gradle wrapper files, a build.gradle and settings.gradle file. This JAR is also automatically built by the assemble task. All of the specific JVM plugins are built on top of the Java Plugin. You do that via source set configuration. You can override the convention values by using the following syntax: Now Gradle will only search directly in src and test for the respective source code. In this section, we will focus on the bare bones provided by the Java Library Plugin. Specifics of the different plugins are available in their dedicated documentation. One of the most common scenarios is when you have separate integration tests of some form or other. Whatever technology you use, Gradle and its large community of plugins will satisfy your needs. The main idea is that source files and resources are often logically grouped by type, such as application code, unit tests and integration tests. Otherwise, the dependency is an internal implementation detail and should be added to implementation. The question then becomes: when should you define a custom source set? Significantly, the files that form a source set don’t have to be located in the same directory! This is necessary for projects like The following diagram shows how the source set fits in with this task: As before, the shaded boxes represent properties of the source set, which in this case comprises the locations of the resource files and where they are copied to. SourceSets can be used to specify a different project structure. Java, whatever source is in the main source set. It should be straightforward and if it’s not, then it’s probably not the right tool for the job. There are a number of hands-on samples that you can explore for You’ll learn more about source sets and the features they provide in: The vast majority of Java projects rely on libraries, so managing a project’s dependencies is an important part of building a Java project. First of all we have to add java plugin to the build script because it provides tasks to compile Java source code, run unit tests, create Javadoc and create a JAR file. To enable Java preview features for compilation, test execution and runtime, you can use the following DSL snippet: If you want to leverage the multi language aspect of the JVM, most of what was described here will still apply. It is however possible to override some compiler and execution options at the task level. These options can be set per JavaCompile task, or on the java { } extension for all compile tasks, using properties with the same names. One reason for doing so is to share manifest information between JARs. Gradle manages this distinction via the Java Library Plugin, which introduces an api configuration in addition to the implementation one covered in this chapter. Historical options for the Java compiler remain available: Defines which language version of Java your source files should be treated as. Although the properties in the example are optional, we recommend that you specify them in your projects. Declaring custom source directories additively, Example 7. Test and the JavaExec task to use the correct java executable. Jcenter is for resolving your dependencies. These tweaks not only lead to better incremental build integration, but they also help with reproducible builds. These plugins create a dependency between Groovy/Scala compilation and Java compilation (of source code in the java folder of a source set). How you package and potentially publish your Java project depends on what type of project it is. Most language plugins, Java included, automatically create a source set called main, which is used for the project’s production code. In particular, it uses the same default directory structure for source files and resources, and it works with Maven-compatible repositories.

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