Chen Tang, one of the Han generals who fought the Xiongnu, recorded fighting soldiers who used the yu lin zhen, fish scale, formation. The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts, Floki and the Viking Discovery of Iceland. Chinese villagers 'descended from Roman soldiers' Genetic testing of villagers in a remote part of China has shown that nearly two thirds of their DNA is of Caucasian … New scientific findings suggest that images and hieroglyphics on the wooden statue were carved with the jaw of a beaver, its teeth intact. © 2009-2020 Historic Mysteries. Emperor Yuandi established a new county called Lijian (Liqian) or Li-jien, which, according to Hucker, is a name that reflects the Roman legion. This includes stories like that of the lost legion of Carrhae, whose members may have ended up in Liqian, China. Is it possible that the inhabitants of the unusual village could be descendants of displaced Romans? Available at:, “Digging for Romans in China” by Henry Chu (2000). Georgia Guidestones: Who Paid for It and Why? Partially restored by Augustin Pajou. Available at:, I have a bachelor's degree in earth science but I minored in anthropological archaeology and have attended an archaeological field school. On the contrary, their DNA was similar to that of the Uygurs of the Xinjiang Province of Western China, who possess Northern European ancestry (Khan). This has attracted the interest of both Chinese and Western scientists. Has A Lost Roman Legion Been Found In China? Charles Hucker proposed that the Roman legionaries may have been amongst the Xiongnu soldiers. Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus located in the Louvre, Paris. ThoughtCo. For this reason, any contact between the cultures has fascinated historians ever since Western scholars began to study China and Chinese scholars began to study the West. But Why is the Plumed Serpent Ubiquitous? Additionally, they found Roman coins and pottery. By nightfall, the battle was all but over. Celtic mercenary soldiers fought in Central Asia and Asia in Turkey, Judea, Syria, and against the Seleucid Empire pre-imperial Rome. A genetic study from the University of Lanzhou showed that the inhabitants of the town do have connections to Europe, which makes the theory more plausible, though it is also true that the town is built along the old Silk Road so connections with western populations are more likely regardless of whether they were Roman. Khan, Razib. The Chinese annals record mercenaries fighting on the side of the Huns who used a “fish scale” formation. Chinese records indicate that in 36 BCE at the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han captured the Xiongnu, led by Zhizhi Changyu in Central Asia, in a place known today as Dzhambul, Uzbekistan, in 36 BCE. At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. Legion Y27gq-25 Monitor. The Nephilim: Giant Offspring of the Sons of God and the Daughters of Man? Li-Jien is the very foundation of the whole theory, the building block that may spout a magnificent discovery coated in the marble of history changing impact…or just a great and ultimately sad story. The leader’s inexperience became apparent the day he led 45,000 soldiers into battle against the very prepared and mobile Parthian cavalry in Carrhae, now known today as Harran, Turkey. Crassus was already one of the wealthiest men in the Roman republic, but he had a desire to access the wealth of Parthia, so he convinced the Senate to let him lead 42,000 Roman soldiers into the battlefield against the Parthians. According to legend, liquid gold was poured down his throat as a punishment for his greed. / Tell Us Your Best Ghost Story, Harvard Scientists Say That There May Be An Ancient Earth Inside Earth, Legendary heroes who have inspired us through the ages, Rapidly Melting Norwegian Ice Exposes Land Littered with Ancient Arrows, Tech Reveals A Little Girl Mummy Who Doesn’t Look Like Her Portrait, Unidentified Salt God Emerges from Ancient Bulgarian Cult Site. Ancient History of the Swastika and Its Fall... Two Roman Emperors With a Social Conscience, Tennessee Town Hangs Murderous Mary the Elephant. Historic Mysteries is an Amazon Associate and earns from qualifying purchases. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. ( CC0). The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania: Deadly Wasps Once Prevented its Destruction. I have participated in archaeological excavations in Greece and San Diego. Crassus attempted to negotiate a truce but was killed in the process. Just because it is … The Parthians stated there were no prisoners to repatriate. If we read from... What’s Behind Increasing Paranormal Activity? He feels fortunate to have been able to visit many of the ancient wonders that he read about in history books. As the founder of Historic Mysteries, his goal is to share with you the secrets of our past. Archaeologists now believe Liqian became present-day Zhelaizhai, China. Accept Read More, Arguments Against the Lost Roman Legion in Liqian Theory. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained. 17 years later, in 36 BC, on the western border of the Han Chinese Empire, the battle of Zhizhi was fought between the Chinese and the Huns , a classical enemy of China. Brummell, Paul. Discover Magazine, October 21, 2019. (, Italy’s Quest for the Ark of the Covenant. Turkmenistan: the Bradt Travel Guide. However, it's certainly a mystery that Liqian people still look like westerners 2000 years after the facts. The Bringer of Souls: The Stork Myth In Ancient Pan-European Beliefs, The Disturbing True Story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin, The Real Story of Medusa: Protective Powers from a Snake-Haired Gorgon, Charon, Son of Night and Shadow, Ferrier of the Dead, Beaver's teeth 'used to carve the oldest wooden statue in the world’, Uncovering Ancient Pyramid Science at Teotihuacan, Where Men Become Gods, Jewelry to Die For: 14th-Century Bulgarian Ring with a Killer Dose. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. The fate of the 10,000 captured Legionnaires remained a mystery. ( Public Domain ). This video is unavailable. Desktops & Cubes . View All Close. Mass Grave Found in the Netherlands: A Case of Medieval Slaughter? Proponents of this theory have searched for Liqian and believe that they have found it. Evidence shows that the people of Zhelaizhai had lined the ancient streets with tree trunks. Was there ever a Trojan War? This idea was first suggested by the historian Homer Dubs. Since Rome and China were aware of each other in antiquity, and it was possible to travel between the two empires at the time, this hypothesis is made more plausible. Eventually, they became mercenary soldiers for the Han Chinese who gave the Romans land in the Gansu province. if this legion had come from the Egyptian or Greek speaking provinces the name of the town could still be of Roman origins. Military Books. Lenovo Legion Slim 7i—World's lightest 15.6" gaming laptop with RTX *Based on research conducted by Lenovo (August 10, 2020) on consumer laptops sold by major gaming PC manufacturers shipping more than one million units worldwide annually. I may have left you wondering the significance of this seemingly innocuous place. Groom of the Stool: Was The King’s Toilet Guy The Worst Job Ever? Welcome to the 2 nd act of a lost Roman legion in China. This tactic of tightly squared units utilized shields for the first row to cover their body. And, even though there is circumstantial evidence, there is no evidence that would confirm that Romans had been in Liqian in the past. The Roman style pot could have been gained through trade, and the other artifacts are not uniquely Roman. All rights reserved. Public domain. Carrhae is a location near the modern-day Syrian-Turkish border. Consequently, Dubs believed that the residents of Zhelaizhai may be the descendants of the lost Roman legion in China. Top Image:  A man in Liqian, China. Some of the people who live in Lijien — today, “Zhelaizhai” — have Caucasian features. Were Neanderthal Thumbs Better Adapted for Tennis? Historic Mysteries provides captivating articles on archaeology, history, and unexplained mysteries. Freewalt, Jason, and Joseph Scalzo. It was a Parthian custom to send prisoners of war captured in the west to the far east to secure their loyalty against their eastern rivals, the Huns. Rome and China are two major civilizations that shaped the cultures within their sphere of influence. The Tarim mummies of Xinjiang, China, are just one example of this. Continue reading: This has led to the popular theory that these mysterious soldiers were in fact exiled Roman legionnaires from the Battle of Carrhae who had hired themselves out as mercenaries for the Huns. It was common practice of Romans to name new towns after *people*… and while Marcus Licinius Crassus may have lost his final battle, a legion which ended up in exile and founded a home-from-home far away may well have named it “Licinia” after him as an ironic tribute – the man who more than anyone else was responsible for them being there, both in his prosecution of an unnecessary war and for the disastrous tactics which led to their defeat. Another study from 2007 determined that according to paternal (Y) lineage DNA, the people of Zhelaizhai are not descendants of Romans. 3 Problems to Remember When Trying to Find Atlantis. Die Verlorene Legion. This question continues to go unanswered by the academic and archaeological world. Date published 1972 Bookseller catalogs WORLD WAR II / GERMAN & EASTERN FRONT; Items with Photos; List 84; Terms of Sale. The Powerful Symbol of the Swastika and its 12,000 Year History, Ancient Anomalous Human Skeletons: Humanity Could be Much Older Than We Think, Where are Ashkenazi Jews from? Who was the Babushka Lady at JFKs Assassination? I understand that the story of the lost legion may seem dubious; anyway, there have been many greek westerners who eventually settled up in Gansu / Ningxia, such as merchants following Sogdia/Bactria caravans or Nestorius followers who spreaded everywhere in the area after their faith was declared an heresy. On the other hand, many scholars have doubts about the feasibility of the hypothesis. Indo-Europeans had spread out into Central Asia well before the Imperial Roman period. His mother was English, from County Durham, and his paternal grandparents were … The nature of its disappearance in the early second century AD - if it ever truly disappeared at all – has sparked a wealth of interest from the media and academia, as a result it is now immortalised in thousands of words of print and rolls of film. When the owner and founder, Dani Li, decided to move back to Beijing, China in 2008, he sold the label to an Australian named David Gu. In 53 BCE, a humiliating defeat for a Roman army set off a chain of events. The Polovtsian Statues of the Eurasian Steppes. The identification is based upon coin effigies. Although it is possible that a group of Roman mercenaries could have made it all the way to western China, it is still an enormous distance. As I read this article I wondered if any graves from the period have been discovered. I am especially interested in classical Greek history... Read More, Is it possible that the name of Li-Jian or Li-Qian could have come, not from the word “Legion”, but from Crassus’s middle name – Licinius? It is possible that a Roman legion did make it to China, but the evidence is not conclusive. Bust of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt (305 BC–282 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. These Uyghur girls are genetically similar to a few residents of Liqian, today’s ZhelaiZhai. Watch Queue Queue Zhelaizhai is a modern village near Lanzhou. Roman legions had names, typically based on where they were originally located. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. The mythical mushroom portals of the supernatural, Sky Burial: Tibet’s Ancient Tradition for Honoring the Dead. There, the Romans founded a city called Lijien (also Liqian or Lijian), the word that the Chinese used for legion. Carrhae is a location near the modern-day Syrian-Turkish border. Chen Tang, one of the Han generals who fought the Xiongnu, recorded fighting soldiers who used the yu lin zhen, fish scale, formation. Prior to this battle, Crassus had amassed a degree of fame after he defeated Spartacus’ rebellion in 71 BCE. Laptops. Because the legend has been popularized, the town has used it to attract tourists, even going as far as to construct Roman style buildings and statues. He was also allegedly beheaded, and his body was desecrated. Legend of the Miraculous Loretto Chapel Staircase. After all, there have been Jewish people who settled up in old chinese capital cities Luoyang and Kaifeng and preserved their traditions. While the two sides were negotiating an end to the fight, the Parthians captured Crassus and also beheaded him. | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | DMCA Notice, This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Despite his prior conquests, many people questioned his military leadership. The Ninth Legion ‘Hispana’, the lost legion of Rome that marched into the murky fog of history and into legend.,, ( Public Domain ). Dating back 11,000 years - with a coded message left by ancient man from the Mesolithic Age - the Shigir Idol is almost three times as old as the Egyptian pyramids. I remember reading about a test they can do on bones that tells where a person grew up (sorry don’t remember what it’s called). A great many modern historians absolutely dismiss the story of the legionaries in China as more of a fairytale than truth, though some prominent historians still argue that this sequence of events is quite possible and even the most probable of theories. The Chinese description of the fish scale formation used by the mercenary soldiers bears a vague resemblance to the testudo formation practiced by Roman legions. He believed that around 50 BCE, the soldiers ended up as prisoners of war. However, the Roman legions used this strategy throughout the empire and called it the testudo (tortoise shell). Strength for a single squadron was six Legion officers, 20 Legion NCOs, eight Vietnamese NCOs, 124 Legionnaires and 127 Vietnamese cavalrymen. A map of China’s Han Empire available during this same period showed a county named Liqian. ( The Unz Review ). Gill (2018). Approximately 15,000 Roman soldiers managed to escape, but 10,000 others became prisoners. In days of old, the dead were buried with a silver coin (the shiner the better) so that the souls of the faithful departed could pay the toll to the deathless demon ferryman of the underworld: Charon. The fish scale formation impressed the Chinese and they invited the soldiers to come back to China and become part of the border guard in the modern Gansu province. Available at:, “How Did Crassus Die?” by N.S. Military Books. Accessories & Monitors. J. Scalzo (ed. There are many reported human skeletal finds which are in discordance with current evolutionary beliefs dating back to anomalously ancient geological periods in the distant past, way before it is accepted that human beings ever existed. Norimitsu Odachi: Who Could Have Possibly Wielded This Enormous 15th Century Japanese Sword? having it influence the fringes of Chinese society isn't far fetched. A Net Inceptions project. Zhelaizhai residents with European characteristics. The defeat took place at the Battle of Carrhae, located in eastern Turkey, where the Roman fought against 10,000 Parthian archers against seven Roman legions led by Marcus Licinius Crassus. “A Roman Legion Lost in China” by Angelo Paratico. In the battle, Crassus and his army suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Surena and his 10,000 archers. Die verlorene Legion [Knothe, Maik] on Thus, even if there is a connection to the western Mediterranean world, it is more likely a Greek connection rather than a Roman connection, according to this view. Another connection that has been noted is that the name “Li-Jien” sounds like “legion” when spoken in Chinese. Of the surviving Roman soldiers, 10,000 of them were captured alive by the Parthians. In July 1952 it was back in Central Vietnam, operating near Phu Vang and around Da Nang. However, neighboring cities do not. Date published 1972 Bookseller catalogs WORLD WAR II / GERMAN & EASTERN FRONT; Items with Photos; List 84; Terms of Sale. A modern representation of Roman soldiers. In almost any culture, an ancient royal couple would have been expected to have provided themselves with a superior, monumental, or otherwise unique final resting place. Li-Jien. Around 2010 David Gu dropped out of the underground scene and Dani reestablished ownership. Dubs argued that some of the soldiers in exile gave up trying to go back to Rome and hired themselves out as mercenaries for local warlords in the region. ), The Roman Republic and Empire, HIST532 K001 Spi  14 (2014). Therefore, they moved them further east to the new outpost of Liqian (Li-Chien) in the Gansu province. A true-life drama, centering on British explorer Major Percival Fawcett, who disappeared whilst searching for a mysterious city in the Amazon in the 1920s. Roman Testudo tortoise shell formation. "Rome and China: connections between two great ancient empires." Learn more. Chinese records indicate that in 36 BCE at the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han captured the Xiongnu, led by Zhizhi Changyu in Central Asia, in a place known today as Dzhambul, Uzbekistan, in 36 BCE. Isolated Stairs in the Woods and Their Creepy Stories. Mysterious Cocaine Mummies: Do They Prove Ancient Voyages Between Egypt and Americas? According to some accounts, they were relocated to the eastern border of the Parthian Empire. That would settle the question. Instead, they are very similar, genetically, to Han Chinese with a small amount of Mongolian aspect. When the Hun Jzh Jzh capital was captured by the Ch’en dynasty of China (that is the battle depicted in the painting described by the ancient document) Dubs asserts that the Romans were captured and resettled within the Chinese Empire as the garrison of the town of Li-Jien, supposedly the Chinese version of the word ‘Latin’ – their nationality. As the story goes, the Han victors were highly impressed by the skills of the soldiers. In 1957, Homer H. Dubs, the author of A Roman City in China, made a controversial proposal about the lost Roman legion of Marcus Crassus. It is believed that they were most likely sent to what is now Turkmenistan. Directed by James Gray. Whether or not Roman military had a presence in southeast India has yet to be revealed. Consequently, this may have led to the furthest eastward expansion of the Roman Empire’s military and cultural influence. Italy’s Quest for the Ark of the Covenant. Also, at least one Roman helmet with Chinese lettering puzzled researchers, and a strange passion exists for bulls. Arikamedu in present-day Tamil Nadu was a Roman settlement dating 100-200 BC indicating trade between India and Rome was enduring and extensive. They became known as the Lost Roman Legion. However, his success would not last. Ancient Origins © 2013 - 2020Disclaimer - Terms of Publication - Privacy Policy & Cookies - Advertising Policy - Submissions - We Give Back - Contact us. In antiquity, it was near the fringes of the Roman Empire in the west and the Parthian Empire in the east. Such was the case with Juba and Cleopatra Selene II. However, the analysis did not determine that they derived from Southern Europe, as experts would expect if they originated in Italy. Tunnels to the Sun: Exploring the Mysterious Ravne Tunnels in Bosnia, Last of the Kings of Egypt: The Ptolemaic Dynasty, The Dispilio Tablet - the oldest known written text, Butrint National Park, Preserving the Rise and Fall of an Ancient City. From there, the mercenary soldiers helped the Han Chinese defend against Tibetan raids. Alan Walbridge Ladd was born in Hot Springs, Arkansas, the only child of Ina Raleigh (aka Selina Rowley) and Alan Ladd, a freelance accountant. A 2005 DNA analysis of residents in Zhelaizhai indicates that approximately 56 percent have genetic sequences similar to Europeans. Source: Johnathon Kos-Read/ CC BY ND 2.0. There is debate whether his village was inhabited by Roman soldiers from the lost legion of Carrhae. Interesting history topics are just a click away. Commodus – the Outrageous Emperor who Fought as a Gladiator, New Research Shows that Some Ancient Egyptians Were Naturally Fair-Haired. Additionally, a helmet was reportedly found with Chinese characters written on it saying, “one of the surrendered.” Two other artifacts of interest are a Roman style water pot, and a trunk of wood with stakes similar to those used by the Romans to construct forts. Their Origins May Surprise You, Do you dare enter a fairy ring? Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? The legend begins in 53 BC with the Battle of Carrhae between the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus and the Parthian general Surena. However, Paul Brummell, the author of Turkmenistan, says that the Parthians moved many prisoners from the Battle of Carrhae eastward to Merv, Turkmenistan, where they used the fighters against invasions. The True Aryans: Who Were They Really and How Were Their Origins Corrupted? U.S. National Library of Medicine, February 2007. The appearance of the villagers and the discovery of unusual artifacts has led many believers in the legend to identify Zhelaizhai with Liqian. Of course the Indo-European culture was fairly wide spread. The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe. Underworld Reapers of Chinese Mythology Los Angeles Times . The Mystery of JFK’s Brain: How Did it Disappear? According to Fan Ye’s 5th century “Hou Han Shu”, Liqian was what the Chinese called the Roman Empire. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Marcahuasi: Vestiges of a Forgotten Global Civilization, or Just Weird Rocks in Peru? Also, the physical appearance and genetic relations of the villagers doesn’t require that they be directly descended from Mediterranean peoples, since there are many central Asian ethnic groups that also have genetic ties to the Mediterranean region and traits such as blonde or brown hair and blue eyes. Some have used this to argue that the name is originally derived from the word. Accessed March 14, 2020. One thing that is for certain, however, is that the people of Liqian stand out from the surrounding people in the region, a fact that remains unexplained. Rebirth and Rejuvenation: How Have Ancient New Year’s Traditions Influenced Festivities Today? What is interesting about the town is that the people living there have traits such as brown hair and blue eyes, which contrast with the appearance of most of the surrounding people. However, the Roman legions used this strategy throughout the … Bearded Gods of the Americas Were Jesus Resurrected?! (A name which he also shared with another famous Roman general to have made Eastern conquests – Lucius Licinius Lucullus. Does the Brewer Cave Story Unlock a Hidden History? Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides, 2005. Following the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han possibly captured over a thousand prisoners. Testudo formation. This tactic of tightly squared units utilized shields for the first row to cover their body. The Legend of the Lost Legion of Carrhae The legend begins in 53 BC with the Battle of Carrhae between the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus and the Parthian general Surena. In early 1952, the 1st GA was operating in the Mekong Delta. Die Verlorene Legion. (Neil Carey/ CC BY SA 2.0 ). A Roman Legion Lost in China. Another issue is that it is unlikely that the name Li-Jien is related to the word legion. With Charlie Hunnam, Robert Pattinson, Sienna Miller, Tom Holland. Parallels Between The Jewish Fall Festival And Akhenaten’s Royal Jubilee. How Were the Terracotta Soldiers Made? In 53BC 10,000 Roman soldiers disappeared after a disastrous battle. They are also cultures that appear to have been mostly isolated from each other. The Evidence is Cut in Stone: A Compelling Argument for Lost High Technology in Ancient Egypt. In antiquity, it was near the fringes of the Roman Empire in the west and the Parthian Empire in the east. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. The genetic findings could also be interpreted to mean that the people of the town descend from a local Caucasian population and there is no indisputable archaeological evidence of a Roman presence in the town in antiquity. Die verlorene Legion In fact “Licinius” was the major family name: Crassus and Lucullus were “cognomen” branches of the “nomen” Licinius.). Liqian (simplified Chinese: 骊靬; traditional Chinese: 驪靬; pinyin: Líqián; Wade–Giles: Li-ch'ien) was a county established during the Western Han dynasty and located in the south of modern Yongchang County, Jinchang, in Gansu province of Northwest China.The Western Han inhabitants of the county had migrated to the area from western regions. Black metal and extreme sounds label established in the last months of 2002 in Sydney, Australia. History of the Ancient World . Excavations in Zhelaizhai unearthed a trunk with stakes, which the Romans commonly used to build fortifications. The Parthians beheaded Crassus’ son and killed 20,000 Roman soldiers. The following rows covered their heads. It was a shameful disaster for the Roman army: seven legions with the strength of 45,000 men were humiliated and routed by …

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